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Fundamentals about computer?

 
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Dr.Disrespect
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 04, 2017 3:48 pm    Post subject: Fundamentals about computer? Reply with quote

I want to learn the fundamentals about computer science, but I don't know what books to look for. For example, I would like to know the answers of the following questions and similar questions related to them:

1. Why do we need RAM? Why does CPU interacts with RAM more easily(faster) than with HDD or SSD?

2. Why can CPU do calculations that fast? What determine the speed of CPU? Why smaller transistors (14nm vs 22nm) are better?

3. Why does a PC need driver for hardware?

4. How does a hard drive store data?

5. Assuming all other stuffs are the same, a 256GB SSD has more ??? than a 128GB SSD? (the three question marks is the question)

6. DDR4 is faster than DDR2, why?

I am very curious about these quetions, and would like to find a starting point to understand them.

Thanks in advance.

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ParkourPenguin
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 04, 2017 5:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

If this website doesn't already have the answer, you can find it by using this website.
  1. Computers need memory in order to function. If they can't store anything, they can't do anything because they have nothing to do anything with. HDD/SSD is used for cheap mass storage, and RAM is used for more expensive faster storage. [Wiki]
  2. CPUs are fast because manufacturers designed them to be fast. Clock speed is certainly a factor, but there is other stuff like parallel computing (on several levels), pipelines, cache, reordering, and branch prediction. Most of it is meant to hide memory latency. Smaller transistors are generally better because they switch faster and more of them can be packed into a smaller amount of space. [Wiki]
  3. Drivers are a necessary abstraction. They're the binding that allows software to talk to hardware independent of the hardware's implementation. [Wiki]
  4. HDDs use magnets to read or write data to a disk coated in a magnetic material. [Wiki]
  5. Memory? Circuits? Transistors? A lot of things can fit in that blank. [Wiki]
  6. New advances in technology make DDR4 better than DDR2. For the most part you can simply think of it as higher throughput. [Wiki]

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Matze500
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 05, 2017 4:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

To 2: Smaller the cpu(nm) the smaller the energy usage.
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Dr.Disrespect
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 06, 2017 9:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank both of you, Penguin and Matze500.

I think I am asking for too much, but can you recommend a book or some books to read? I want something more organized to learn from, instead of searching a topic once at a time on the internet. Smile

Edit:

@Penguin:

One follow up question:

You mentioned smaller transistor "switches faster" in your answer. So, switching means switching on and off, which indicates 0 and 1, the machine language, right?

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Viloresi
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 06, 2017 10:36 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

fmanager wrote:
Thank both of you, Penguin and Matze500.

I think I am asking for too much, but can you recommend a book or some books to read? I want something more organized to learn from, instead of searching a topic once at a time on the internet. Smile

Edit:

@Penguin:

One follow up question:

You mentioned smaller transistor "switches faster" in your answer. So, switching means switching on and off, which indicates 0 and 1, the machine language, right?

you may read about electronics... btw yes I think that's what he meant, a transistor does something that is called "commutation" , switching on and off (polarizing the transistor ), you could think a transistor has a "gate" that is being opened and closed by current (this is a very stupid simplification since there are a lot of types of transistors and they can be used for other purposes btw is to let you understand), the gate is the central stripe and the "flow" are the other 2 sides...
you should read about transistors if you are interested, in the web you can find a lot regarding this.

I don't know if you are just starting to learn electronics or you already know some stuff...
btw I may suggest you to buy RaspBerry PI or Arduino , these 2 are very cool to understand how electronic components works, also on the internet there is a project made with arduino , it's a 6 bit computer (it is really complex, but cool!).
Also you may find a lot of books related to them, or probably you could try too look up for DIY books about electronics.


I've found this interesting article, (if you're familiar with physics and math you may already've seen this kind of parameters in the equations )
http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2008/bucharest2/macmese/macmese82.pdf
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Dr.Disrespect
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 06, 2017 10:58 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Viloresi wrote:
fmanager wrote:
Thank both of you, Penguin and Matze500.

I think I am asking for too much, but can you recommend a book or some books to read? I want something more organized to learn from, instead of searching a topic once at a time on the internet. Smile

Edit:

@Penguin:

One follow up question:

You mentioned smaller transistor "switches faster" in your answer. So, switching means switching on and off, which indicates 0 and 1, the machine language, right?

you may read about electronics... btw yes I think that's what he meant, a transistor does something that is called "commutation" , switching on and off (polarizing the transistor ), you could think a transistor has a "gate" that is being opened and closed by current (this is a very stupid simplification since there are a lot of types of transistors and they can be used for other purposes btw is to let you understand), the gate is the central stripe and the "flow" are the other 2 sides...
you should read about transistors if you are interested, in the web you can find a lot regarding this.

I don't know if you are just starting to learn electronics or you already know some stuff...
btw I may suggest you to buy RaspBerry PI or Arduino , these 2 are very cool to understand how electronic components works, also on the internet there is a project made with arduino , it's a 6 bit computer (it is really complex, but cool!).
Also you may find a lot of books related to them, or probably you could try too look up for DIY books about electronics.


I've found this interesting article, (if you're familiar with physics and math you may already've seen this kind of parameters in the equations )
http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2008/bucharest2/macmese/macmese82.pdf


@Viloresi:

Thank you for the detailed answer.

Unfortunately, I study law, which means physics and math are in another universe than the one I am living in, but the link you provided at the end gives me a general understanding of the idea. I will try to read some entry-level books about electronics based on your advice. Thanks again.

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